Congenital Disorders of the Reproductive Systems
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Congenital Disorders of the Reproductive Systems
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In typical reproductive system development, recall that the intermediate mesoderm forms the mesonephric (Wolffian) and paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts and the indifferent gonads; primitive germ cells migrate into the indifferent gonads. These are the structures that become the internal organs of the reproductive systems. After listening to this AudioBrick, you should be able to: Describe the…

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Substance Use Disorder
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Substance Use Disorders: Foundations and Frameworks
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Substance use disorder (SUD) refers to a pattern of substance use—be it nicotine, cannabis, cocaine, or something else—that causes significant impairment or distress to the user. SUD is prevalent and growing in the United States and around the world. People of any age may be at risk for developing a substance use disorder. But exposure…

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Stimulants-and-Cognitive-Enhancing-Drugs
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Stimulants and Cognitive-Enhancing Drugs
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Stimulant medications are drugs that increase alertness and attention. They also elevate heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate. Stimulants are used to treat many conditions, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic lethargy, narcolepsy, and obesity. Examples of stimulants include caffeine, amphetamines (such as dextroamphetamine), methylphenidate, and modafinil. Cognitive-enhancing drugs serve a similar purpose, increasing memory,…

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Hematopoietic Malignancies: Putting It All Together
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Hematopoietic Malignancies: Putting It All Together
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If you’ve studied the hematopoietic system malignancies—all the leukemias, lymphomas, and plasma cell disorders—you probably feel like you’ve been hit with the good old medical school fire hose. Now’s a good time to take a step back from all the details, make sure that you remember the underlying framework, and pull together some information that…

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Substance Use Disorder
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Substance Use Disorders: Foundations and Frameworks
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Substance use disorder (SUD) refers to a pattern of substance use—be it nicotine, cannabis, cocaine, or something else—that causes significant impairment or distress to the user. SUD is prevalent and growing in the United States and around the world. People of any age may be at risk for developing a substance use disorder. But exposure…

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Megaloblastic Anemia
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Megaloblastic Anemia
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Megaloblast. Now there’s a word you don’t hear every day. The root -blast (from the Greek blastos, meaning germ or bud) may be somewhat familiar since we talk about blast cells (very young hematopoietic precursor cells) in hematology. And megalo- (from the Greek megas, meaning large or great) is also used fairly frequently, as in splenomegaly (enlargement…

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Diabetes Melllitus
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Diabetes Melllitus: Foundations and Frameworks
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Blood glucose is proof that you can have too much of a good thing. While glucose serves a critical role as fuel for many of our bodily functions, it must remain in a very tightly controlled range. If the level goes too low, you can fall into a coma. If glucose is too high, damage…

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Cholelithiasis and Cholecystitis
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Cholelithiasis and Cholecystitis
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Gallstones are the hardened precipitates—“stones”—of the substrates found in bile. The liver makes bile to help digest fats, and the bile is stored in the gallbladder. When there is an excess of a particular substance in the bile (eg, cholesterol or unconjugated bilirubin), gallstones form in the gallbladder. Gallstones can be as small as a…

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Pulmonary Hypertension
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Pulmonary Hypertension
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Normal blood pressure keeps us alive. It’s the force that moves blood throughout our circulatory system, ensuring that oxygen and nutrients reach our organs and tissues and that waste products are eliminated. When we hear the word hypertension—high blood pressure—we know this describes the blood flow exerting too much force against blood vessel walls. Pulmonary…

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Macroscopic Skin Lesions
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Macroscopic Skin Lesions
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Macroscopic Skin Lesions A thorough skin examination should be performed annually to assess for new or changing macroscopic skin lesions. It is critically important to be able to identify and describe normal and abnormal skin and to note your findings carefully, because a change in an existing skin lesion is the most common sign of…

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