Congenital Disorders of the Reproductive Systems
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Congenital Disorders of the Reproductive Systems
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In typical reproductive system development, recall that the intermediate mesoderm forms the mesonephric (Wolffian) and paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts and the indifferent gonads; primitive germ cells migrate into the indifferent gonads. These are the structures that become the internal organs of the reproductive systems. After listening to this AudioBrick, you should be able to: Describe the…

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Stimulants-and-Cognitive-Enhancing-Drugs
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Stimulants and Cognitive-Enhancing Drugs
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Stimulant medications are drugs that increase alertness and attention. They also elevate heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate. Stimulants are used to treat many conditions, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic lethargy, narcolepsy, and obesity. Examples of stimulants include caffeine, amphetamines (such as dextroamphetamine), methylphenidate, and modafinil. Cognitive-enhancing drugs serve a similar purpose, increasing memory,…

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Hematopoietic Malignancies: Putting It All Together
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Hematopoietic Malignancies: Putting It All Together
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If you’ve studied the hematopoietic system malignancies—all the leukemias, lymphomas, and plasma cell disorders—you probably feel like you’ve been hit with the good old medical school fire hose. Now’s a good time to take a step back from all the details, make sure that you remember the underlying framework, and pull together some information that…

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Megaloblastic Anemia
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Megaloblastic Anemia
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Megaloblast. Now there’s a word you don’t hear every day. The root -blast (from the Greek blastos, meaning germ or bud) may be somewhat familiar since we talk about blast cells (very young hematopoietic precursor cells) in hematology. And megalo- (from the Greek megas, meaning large or great) is also used fairly frequently, as in splenomegaly (enlargement…

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Diabetes Melllitus
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Diabetes Melllitus: Foundations and Frameworks
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Blood glucose is proof that you can have too much of a good thing. While glucose serves a critical role as fuel for many of our bodily functions, it must remain in a very tightly controlled range. If the level goes too low, you can fall into a coma. If glucose is too high, damage…

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Pulmonary Hypertension
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Pulmonary Hypertension
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Normal blood pressure keeps us alive. It’s the force that moves blood throughout our circulatory system, ensuring that oxygen and nutrients reach our organs and tissues and that waste products are eliminated. When we hear the word hypertension—high blood pressure—we know this describes the blood flow exerting too much force against blood vessel walls. Pulmonary…

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Macroscopic Skin Lesions
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Macroscopic Skin Lesions
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Macroscopic Skin Lesions A thorough skin examination should be performed annually to assess for new or changing macroscopic skin lesions. It is critically important to be able to identify and describe normal and abnormal skin and to note your findings carefully, because a change in an existing skin lesion is the most common sign of…

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The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Acute Inflammation
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Have you ever cut your finger, bumped your head, or fallen and scraped your knee? While you were cursing your clumsiness or bad luck, your body got straight to work healing the injury, relying on the wondrous process of acute inflammation. Shortly after your injury, you most likely experienced some or all of the cardinal…

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Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes
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Multiple endocrine neoplasias are familial syndromes of endocrine tumors occurring in endocrine organs throughout the body. Despite its acronym, the risk for acquiring MEN is about the same in men and women and also across geographic and racial and ethnic groups. These are rare syndromes, affecting about 1 in 30,000 people. Genetic mutations cause the…

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Myocarditis
The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Myocarditis
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Myocarditis is the inflammation of the heart muscle. This muscle is the middle layer of the heart, formally called the myocardium, hence the name myocarditis (the -itis suffix indicates inflammation). Inflammation of the myocardium can be caused by a variety of etiologies, from infection to drugs. If severe enough, inflammation can lead to necrosis and…

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