Welcome to the fascinating world of cell wall synthesis inhibitors, where we will venture into the realm of one of the most clinically used antibiotics, the penicillins. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they attack more than one species of bacteria. We’ll explore each drug, its mechanism of action, its side effects, and so on.
Penicillin structure consists of a fused β-lactam ring (so it’s also called a β-lactam antibiotic) and a thiazolidine ring (Figure 1). An amide and a carboxylic acid group are also present. The variation is mostly limited to the side chain (R) group of the amide, but prodrugs have been developed by modifying the carboxylic acid.
- Describe penicillins and list common examples.
- Describe the pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action of penicillins.
- Describe the major mechanisms of resistance of bacteria against penicillins and how they developed.
- Differentiate the types of penicillins.
- Describe the major clinical uses of penicillins, including major types of susceptible bacteria.
- Describe the adverse reactions of penicillins.
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